Transient Control Strategies for an Engine with an Exhaust Treatment System
to Meet Future Emissions Standards, 03-9526

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Principal Investigator
Yiqun Huang
(Ryan Roecker)

Inclusive Dates:  01/01/05 – Current

Background - Manufacturers of diesel-powered light-duty vehicles in the United States and Europe face stringent emissions regulations in the future. A lean NOx trap (LNT) is the likely exhaust treatment device for NOx control in the U.S. while diesel particulate filters (DPF) are a certainty for particulate matter (PM) control. LNTs must be regenerated periodically to purge the nitrate emissions stored under lean operation. The regeneration process requires the diesel engine to be run richer than stoichiometric conditions. Regeneration under relatively steady-state conditions is a common practice in development efforts even though steady-state conditions are not common in the real-world driving practice.

Approach - The objectives of this project are to develop and demonstrate combustion technology and control strategies to accommodate transient operation of a diesel engine that uses a lean NO x trap (LNT)-based, four-way catalyst system with a specific focus on the following:

  1. Successful LNT regeneration during transients, as opposed to delaying or aborting the regeneration until a more convenient condition occurs.
  2. Thermal management of the entire four-way catalyst system during transients because the performance of one component cannot be sacrificed for the other components.
  3. Achieving rapid warm-up of the exhaust treatment system during cold-start using in-cylinder controls and exhaust treatment configuration.

A Renault G9T 600, a modern diesel engine that complies with the latest European emissions regulations (Euro IV), is used in this project. This 2.2-liter engine was instrumented and installed in an SwRI emissions laboratory, and an SwRI-designed rapid prototyping electronic control system (RPECS®) is used to replace the production electronic control unit. Strategies for obtaining rich operation before and during a transient event have been proposed. 

Accomplishments - Three objectives have been accomplished in this project First, to realize SwRI's alternative combustion concepts for low emissions, this engine is converted with dual-loop EGR system as shown in Figure 1. Second, surveys of the transient characteristics of light-duty diesel vehicle under the FTP-75 driving cycle as well as US06 driving cycle are completed. Simplified transient requirement based on the survey results is finished. Third, a patent-pending warm-up strategy was tested and has demonstrated effective exhaust temperature increase as shown in Figure 2. 

Figure 1. Engine Setup with Dual-Loop EGR System

Figure 2. High Exhaust Gas Temperature During Fast Warm-Up by the Patent-Pending Approach

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