Measuring Yields of Toxic Gases from Materials during Different Stages of Fire Development under Dynamic Conditions, 01-R9905Printer Friendly Version
Inclusive Dates: 10/01/08 Current
Background - Because more than 70 percent of deaths in a fire are caused by smoke, the study of the toxicity of various materials is of importance. This research project will explore the measurement of toxic effluents in a dynamic environment, as opposed to the typical static environment. The standard smoke and toxicity tests are currently run in a closed chamber where a sample is pulled from this closed environment for analysis. The gas sample is run through a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) to analyze various gas concentrations. The toxicity of the smoke is directly dependent upon the burning environment of the material. The cone calorimeter is an independent test apparatus that is used to measure the burning characteristics of a material under various thermal conditions. With a vitiated oxygen test enclosure, the cone calorimeter can also be used to measure the burning characteristics of a material under the conditions that are representative of the different burning environments of a compartment fire. This project will reveal the accuracy and limits of measuring the concentrations of toxic gases in the cone calorimeter via FTIR analysis.
Approach - The objective of this project is to obtain dynamic toxic gas concentration and yield data for a diverse set of materials under different conditions representative of the various stages of smoldering and flaming compartment fires. This objective can be accomplished by:
Accomplishments - This project will determine the effect of the vitiated oxygen attachment on the sample burning environment. Data were gathered for six materials at 50 kW/m2 and 75 kW/m2 in the standard configuration and with the vitiated oxygen enclosure in order to quantify any effects that the chamber may have on the burning characteristics of the samples.