The present disclosure is directed at a process to form bone grafting material. One may provide a porous collagen scaffold and insert the scaffold into a perfusion chamber of a perfusion flow system. This may then be followed by continuously providing a mineralization perfusion fluid flow through the scaffold at a flow rate to provide dynamic intrafibrillar mineralization of the scaffold and form a collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold. One may optionally provide the scaffold with bone tissue forming cells and then deliver a perfusion fluid including oxygen and one or more nutrients through the collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold and to the bone tissue forming cells at a flow rate such that the bone tissue forming cells remodel the collagen/hydroxyapatite composite scaffold and form a bone tissue extracellular matrix. The bone tissue extracellular matrix may then be decellularized to form an acellular bone repair scaffold.
Jian Ling; Ben Antebi; Xingguo Cheng; Jeffrey N. Harris