An antenna element having a metal pattern with a three-dimensional profile. The metal pattern is at least one helix-loaded helix-loaded meandered loxodromic spiral. The profile is generally that of a domed top adjoined to a rotationally symmetric body such as a conical section. Typically, the metal antenna pattern is fabricated upon or otherwise supported by a dielectric medium.
US Patent and Trademark Office
Brandon L. Nance; Brad D. Moore; James R. Noll