Methods and systems for determining cardiovascular parameters of a patient. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes placing a phonocardiogram sensor on a patient's body at a first distal location to the heart, and a blood-pressure waveform sensor at a second distal location to the heart. Then, a first set and a second set of waveforms is obtained from the phonocardiogram sensor and the blood-pressure waveform sensor, respectively. A signal processing or conditioning operation may optionally be performed using the first and second sets of waveforms. Then, a time delay between a dicrotic notch signal and an S2 signal is determined. A blood pressure pulse transit time value is calculated by adding S2D, representing a time delay between a patient's heart valve closure time and an arrival time of the S2 signal at the first distal location, to the time delay between a dicrotic notch signal and an S2 signal. Cardiovascular parameters are then determined using the determined blood pressure pulse transit time and at least one physical parameter representative of a arterial distance between a location of the aortic valve and a location of the blood-pressure waveform sensor.
Keith A. Bartels; Kevin S. Honeyager; Larry D. Canady Jr.