Methods and systems are described for efficiently detecting an object. The system includes at least one electrode for measuring a displacement current. The at least one electrode is coupled to a floating ground configuration provided by an op-amp, where the inverting node of the op-amp is coupled to electrode and the non-inverting node is coupled to a signal generator. The system may include a single capacitance sensor for detecting an object. Systems may include a plurality of capacitance sensors in an array configuration for detecting an object.
Robert E. Martinez; Stephen A. Cerwin; Todd H. Goyen