Advanced science.  Applied technology.


Penetration Mechanics Short Course Outline

The course presents the full spectrum of problems encountered in penetration mechanics. It is structured to emphasize the physical basis for analyzing and solving problems in penetration dynamics from low velocities to hypervelocities. Solution techniques are applied to real problems to better understand impact phenomena.


  • Definition of Impact Regimes
  • Approaches to Modeling
  • Course Outline

Fundamental Relationships

  • Conservation Equations
  • Bernoulli's Theorem
  • Wave Mechanics
  • Rankine-Hugoniot Relations, Shock Propagation
  • Equation of State
  • Shock Heating, Melting, Vaporization

Material Considerations

  • Metals, Ceramics, Glasses & High-Rate Testing
  • Constitutive Modeling
  • Geologic Materials
  • Fibers, Yarns, Fabrics & Composites

Nonpenetrating Impacts

  • Impact on a Rigid Target
  • Impact on an Elastic Target
  • Impact of a Fluid Target
  • Impact Flash

Semi-Infinite Targets

  • Penetration of Low-Strength Targets
  • Penetration of High-Strength Targets

Overview of Shaped Charges

  • Basic Theory
  • Analytical Models of Jet/Particle Formation

Plate Penetration & Perforation

  • Low-Velocity Impact
  • High-Velocity Impact
  • Small Arms
  • Ceramic-Faced Armors
  • Ballistic Fabrics
  • Hypervelocity Impact

Introduction to Hydrocodes

  • Continuum Equations
  • Difference Equations
  • Requirements of a Difference Solution
  • Treatment of Shocks
  • Eulerian/Lagrangian Descriptions

Advances in Hydrocodes

  • Eulerian Methods
  • Lagrangian Methods
  • Constitutive Modeling
  • Zoning Requirements
  • ALE
  • AMR
  • Material Failure


  • Mechanics of Penetration & Perforation
  • Projectile Strength Effects
  • Armor Design
  • Shuttle Columbia Accident Investigation

Modeling Penetration Mechanics

  • Similitude Analysis, Dimensionless Ratios
  • Replica Scale Modeling
  • Nonreplica Modeling

Experimental Techniques


Or call Janet Banda at +1 210 522 2386.