Various configurations of cylindrically shaped transducers are used as borehole seismic wave sources. The basic class of transducers of this invention has an outer shell that is generally cylindrical, and may be comprised sections. The shell or the sections may be pre-stressed or preformed to encourage certain bending motions. Depending on the configuration of the transducer, it approximates a monopole, dipole, or quadrupole radiator. Various actuating means, including magnetostrictive forces and piezoelectric forces, are used to drive the motions of the transducer. These transducers are especially useful for generating compressional, shear, or other elastic waves in solids. For example, in geophysical applications, the transducers are placed in boreholes for either hole-to-hole or single hole measurements.
Thomas E. Owen